Indonesia established bilateral S&T cooperation with several countries. Principally, any collaboration must be initiated by the treaty-making activity for securing a base reference. Some countries already have a foundation of legal agreement that lasted relatively for long time, for decades. For example, Indonesian collaboration with Germany and Japan that had been formalised for more than three decades – the agreements with both countries thus far have been considered not need to be renewed. The articulation of specific focal areas of cooperation is contingent part of the said agreements.
Furthermore, as a custom, the two parties shall hold periodic coordination meeting activities to determine the working agenda, to be organised as a cycle of board-levels (steering committee) and working-levels (working group). As a joint in organising these meetings, the Ministry gathers research institutions involvement as a pursuit to manifest R&D cooperation agenda with the relevant country. However, the Directorate also scrutinises bilateral activities that yields without such routine mechanism, like previously described in Japanese case. Another example for this situation is formal visitations of foreign representatives that came both by invitation and on their own initiative. In addition, in collaboration with Japan, the relation has been maintaned without incorporating routine elements of supervision meetings. Instead, the interellation has been developed with various activities directly. For this, a specific example is the management of grants through SATREPS, which periodically extended on a regular basis every year.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Indonesia, which operates under coordination by the Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, is an institution responsible on international relations of the state. Such mission brings an important role to influence the direction of foreign policy dynamics of science and technology, including in the context of bilateral cooperation. By law, the executive body occupies the central place in the field’s administration toils; it also has the rights to determine situational initiatives for the Ministry of Research and Technology to follow-up. One of the best examples for this instance is the Ministry’s the establishment Indonesia – South Korea Joint Task Force. There, the Ministry developed a policy that supposedly to provide standardised terms for bilateral cross-fields cooperation that however apparently has removed particular attention to science and technology sectors. Such elimination has affected the smooth operations of science and technology bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and South Korea: although it does not inhibit the initiative of cooperation with South Korea through other channels.